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 a. There is no relationship between marriage status and homelessness. b. Being single (i.e., never married or divorced) may be a risk factor the homelessness and it may influence duration of homelessness. c. Marriage may be a resource or protector against homelessness, perhaps due to increased social support, sharing responsibilities, and pooling of resources. d. Both b and c   a. Self-efficacy, learned helplessness b. Hope, locus of control c. Locus of control, emotion-focused coping d. Self-efficacy, problem-focused coping   a. Self-efficacy b. Psychological empowerment c. Locus of control d. Agency   a. social alienation b. learned helplessness c. low self-esteem d. none of the above   a. a sense of learned helplessness b. PTSD c. an internal locus of control d. both a and c     a. problem-focused coping b. emotion-focused coping c. primary appraisal d. secondary appraisal   a. any negative life event. b. any stimulus that requires adaptation. c. any traumatic event. d. any event that is not under one’s control.   a. maladaptive coping b. autonomic nervous system (especially reactivity of the sympathetic division) c. stress hormones (cortisol) and the immune system d. all of the above   a. Unemployment, declining value of minimum wage, increasing housing costs, insufficient housing availability, and increasing costs of health care are factors that contribute to poverty. b. Poverty is a risk for homelessness, and discrimination may exacerbate this risk. c. Poverty is a major risk factor for homelessness, and in this sense it may resemble a serious mental illness, physical dependency, or any other factor that reduces one’s resiliency and ability to cope. d. All of the above.      a. Minorities have experienced discrimination with regard to wages and housing availability and, in some cases, this may increase the risk for homelessness. b. Minorities are more likely to be poor and, thus, at greater risk for homelessness. c. According to research, minority status and discrimination are unrelated to homelessness. d. The homeless population is disproportionally black (45%), compared to 12% of the U.S. population.   a. While trauma and PTSD are relevant in explaining how military veterans can become homeless, research indicates that trauma and PTSD are rarely involved in other cases of homelessness. b. Some research suggests that over 90% of homeless people (men and women) reported one or more PTSD symptom in their lifetime. c. Some research suggests that, among homeless adults, approximately 40% experienced at least one violent trauma, often before becoming homeless. d. According to some research, approximately 30% of homeless women and 20% of homeless men actually met criteria for PTSD.   a. 11% b. 21% c. 41% d. 61%   a. an antibody is detected. b. a suppressor T-cell is detected. c. a B-cell is detected. d. an antigen is detected.    a. …causes secretion of cortisol (stress hormone), which elevates blood sugar and increases metabolid rate throughout the body. b. …may increase the fuel supply to the cells and allow them to sustain high levels of activity in the face of prolonged stress. c. …process may shift energy away from the synthesis of protein, including proteins necessary for a healthy immune system. d. all of the above.   a. sympathetic nervous system b. parasympathetic nervous system c. HPA Axis d. none of the above   a. emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping b. problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping c. primary appraisal, secondary appraisal d. secondary appraisal, primary appraisal   a. Self-efficacy b. Psychological empowerment c. Locus of control d. Resiliency   a. increased the number of soup kitchens b. enhanced agency in homeless individuals c. change local laws in ways that increased available housing for people at risk for homelessness d. both b and c    a. resiliency factors, vulnerability factors b. risk factors, resource or protective factors c. problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping d. none of the above   a. self-efficacy b. psychological empowerment c. self-esteem  d. locus of control   a. Deinstitutionalization is a contributing factor but not a sole cause of homelessness. b. Deinstitutionalization is definitely the primary cause of homelessness. c. Homelessness, like other stressors, may exacerbate mental illness. d. Both a and c   a. coping b. primary appraisal c. secondary appraisal d. emotion-focused coping a. the autonomic nervous system b. the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system c. emotion-focused coping d. both a and b  a. 28 to 30  b. 6 to 9 c. 2-to 3 d. 38 to 40   a. about three times higher than it is in the general populationb. about two times higher than it is in the general populationc. about three times lower than it is in the general populationd. about half of what is found in the general population   a. Poverty b. Absolute poverty c. Relative poverty d. Inequity   a. 1 to 3 b. 10 to 15 c. 15 to 20 d. 20 to 25   a. “Social Stigma, Homelessness, and Prisons” b. “Slavery by Another Name” c. “The New Jim Crow” d. Both b and c a. All homeless people should be rounded up and institutionalized (i.e., confined in a prison, a psychiatric hospital, or a shelter of some kind). b. Homelessness should be criminalized in order to get homeless people off the streets. c. We need to promote organizational strategies that utilize community partnerships and problem-solving to proactively address immediate concerns that are pertinent to public safety. d. The vast majority of homeless people are criminals or violent people and the police in any given community must take forceful action to control them.


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