QUESTION 1 Which of the following is a basic element of classical criminology? Human behavior is a product of social, biological, or economic forces that can be empirically measured. Crime exists because of a lack of norms or clear social standards. Crime is attractive when it promises great benefits with little effort. Crime is a product of the capitalist system. QUESTION 2 Rational choice theorists view crime as both _________ and ________ specific. Offense and offender Reward and offender Victim and offender Offense and victim QUESTION 3 ______________ behavior is any action that departs from the social norms of society. Deviant Illegal Criminal Misdemeanor QUESTION 4 Which was the first written criminal code? Common Law Code Mosaic Code Code of Hammurabi QUESTION 5 To address the nonreporting issue, the federal government sponsors the: IPSR UCR FDIC NCVS QUESTION 6 ____________ deterrence holds that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that known criminals will never repeat their criminal acts. Broad Interval Intermediate Specific QUESTION 7 ____________ uses multiple advances computational methods, including artificial intelligence, to analyze large data sets usually involving one or more data solutions. Data mining Crime mapping Logic bombing Trojan horsing QUESTION 8 Criminologists look for _________ crime-rate patters to gain insight into the nature of crime. Increasing Decreasing Random Stable QUESTION 9 In the past, how did criminologists view crime victims? As an indirect role in a criminal incident. As merely the passive targets of a criminal’s anger or greed. As fully responsible for the criminal incident. As an active role in the incident. QUESTION 10 People who are crime victims are ___________ likely to commit crimes themselves. Less Equally Not More QUESTION 11 People living ___________ are more likely to be vandalized. On military bases In rural areas In suburban communities In cities QUESTION 12 Victim precipitation can be either: Scientific or empirical Active or passive Encouraged or discouraged Instigated or non-responsive QUESTION 13 Shoplifting and vandalism are considered ________ thrills because getting away with crime is a thrilling demonstration of personal competence. Cunning Tricky Sneaky Sexy QUESTION 14 What occurs when increased patrols in one community shift the crime to a more vulnerable neighborhood? Diffusion Replacement Discouragement Displacement QUESTION 15 What is the repetition of criminal behavior called? Recidivism Retaliation Reparation Restitution QUESTION 16 ____________ assumes that behavioral traits may be inherited but that they may also evolve. Sociobiology Meta-evolution Microbiology Biophysics QUESTION 17 When looking at the connection between genetics and crime, researchers have evaluated all the following except: Parental deviance studies Adoption studies Twin studies Diet studies QUESTION 18 According to social learning theories, violence is le
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