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Designing a High speed Wireless Data LinkLine of Sight Link Budget AnalysisSeveral major factors that can impact the performance of a radio system are• Available/permitted output power,• Bandwidth,• Receiver sensitivity,• Antenna gains• Environmental conditionsIn this case study, the students will be required to calculate the link budget for a LOS Wireless link.Read through the following to understand some of the aspects and elements that need to beconsidered when calculating a Link Budget.Received PowerIf the estimated/calculated received power is sufficiently large (relative to receiver sensitivity), the linkbudget is sufficient for sending data.Received Power (dBm) = Transmitted Power (dBm) + Gains (dB) − Losses (dB)Gains(dB)=Transmit Antenna gain+ Receiver Antenna GainReceiver sensitivity is the lowest power level at which the receiver can detect an RF signal anddemodulate data.Link Margin/Fade MarginThe amount by which the received power exceeds receiver sensitivity is called the link margin/fademargin.In wireless systems, multipath propagation results in multiple copies of a signal to arrive at differentsignal phases at the receiver. If these signals add up destructively, the resulting signal power can belower by a factor of 100 or 1000 (20 or 30 dB). The signal level relative to the noise declines makingsignal detection at the receiver more difficult. It is therefore highly recommended to keep a linkmargin of 30 dB when designing a wireless system.Link Margin=Received Power-Receiver sensitivityLossesIn a line-of-sight wireless system, losses are mainly due to free-space path loss (FSPL). Other losses aredue to antenna cabling and connectors. Generally, 0.25dB loss per connector and 0.25dB loss for every3-ft of antenna cable should be included in the link budget calculations. However, for the sake ofsimplicity, you can neglect these losses for your calculations. ( ) = 10 10 ( 4 ) 2In dB’s the path loss when the distance (d is in km) and the frequency (f is in MHz) can be simplifiedas follows: ( ) = 20 10( ) + 20 10( ) + 32.45————————————————————————————————————————————–(a) Calculate the FSPL in dB for a distance of 5Km and 10 Km for two different frequencies 5.8GHz,2.4GHz and construct a table as follows:FSPL(dB)Distance(Km) 2.4GHz 5.8GHz510(b) For the information given below, calculate the link budget analysis for the wireless system,which will involve calculating the following:• Received Power• Link MarginDistance: 5 kmFrequency: 5.8GHzLink Type: Point-to-Point, Line-of-SightTx power: +23dBmAntenna gain is 24dBiAssume negligible loss for cabling and connectorsReceiver Sensitivity: -72dBmAssume that we are using the same antennas at the transmitter and the receiver side, the linkbudget calculations will be the same as the link budget in both directions is expected to besymmetrical. In cases where 2 types of antenna systems with different transmit power areused, we must perform two link budget analysis, one in each direction.(c) For the calculated Link Margin at 5Km what can you say about the availability/reliability of thelink based on the following Table which shows the relationship between the available linkmargin and link availability as a percentage of time.Time Availability (Percentage) Link/Fade Margin90 899 1899.9 2899.99 3899.999 48


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