Assignment:Identify an evidence based practice model and change theory that has been defined in Chapters 13 and 14 of the textbook (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015). Describe in detail how you would utilize the practice model and change theory to implement an evidence-based practice change in your clinical practice environment, related to your research topic.Please submit a PowerPoint presentation of at least 8 slides of content (not counting the title slide and reference slide). You should have at least three scholarly sources in the presentation.Melnyk, B. M. & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2015). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: a guide to best practice (3rd ed.) Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health. ISBN: 978-1-4511-9094-6Building the Infrastructure to Teach Evidence-Based Practice in Academic Settings Teaching EBP cannot occur without human, ﬁ scal, and technological resources. Securing these resources prior to initiating a teaching program will help it succeed. Human resources can include EBP champions, mentors, and evidence-based librarians; knowledge of EBP; and time to accomplish the goal. Fiscal resources include committed funds for ongoing development of the teaching program, to educator the educators, and for purchasing the best technology available for enhancing the program and easing the workload of faculty. Technological resources are vast and always changing. Considering how to best use them to enhance EBP is an imperative. Human Resources Multilevel support for an EBP teaching program is imperative. Administrators, educators, librarians, and students are key stakeholders in this initiative. Administrators, for the purposes of this chapter, are deﬁ ned as anyone who provides ﬁ scal and managerial support to an EBP program (e.g., university presidents, academic deans, residency directors, department chairs, chief ﬁ nancial ofﬁ cers, chief executive ofﬁ cers). Administrators must include designated ﬁ scal resources for EBP in their strategic plans and prospective budgets (e.g., for ongoing education, technology, evidence databases, librarian involvement, and recognition of experts’ time in training and compensation). A proposal outlining the EBP teaching program and its potential beneﬁ ts and costs will assist in obtaining support from administration. Availability of Medical Librarians An invaluable resource to assure you have on the EBP teaching team is a medical/health science librarian who is knowledgeable about EBP. It is imperative that these librarians be involved in the plan to initiate EBP. They can provide perspective and expertise in searching databases, as well as facilitate aspects of information literacy needed by students and faculty who strive to successfully teach and learn about EBP. Early involvement of the librarian in preparing an EBP teaching program is crucial. It is an evidence-based medical/health sciences librarian’s job to be proﬁ cient in knowing where to get information. Librarians’ knowledge of databases, informatics resources, and information retrieval is integral to successful EBP teaching programs. Librarians can assist educators in developing database and Internet searching skills as a means of ﬁ nding relevant evidence to answer clinical questions. In addition, librarians can set up direct search mechanisms in which the faculty or students pose their PICOT question electronically, and the librarian scours the databases for the answer and sends the citations and abstracts for the body of evidence to the inquirer. This approach to evidence retrieval can save enormous amounts of time and use some of the many talents of medical/health sciences librarians well. Champions As educators support teaching EBP, they must ensure that they are knowledgeable and skilled in EBP and able to meaningfully articulate the concepts to the students. A preliminary investment is required so that educators who are teaching EBP have the expertise required for meaningful and successful delivery and role modeling of EBP concepts. For example, assigning faculty to teach a fundamental critical appraisal methods course when their primary focus is generating evidence and they are novices at using evidence in practice is likely to be frustrating to the faculty member and students. Helping the faculty to become more proﬁ cient in understanding the EBP paradigm and how it blends with their research paradigm can facilitate their transition from frustration to champion of EBP. Educators need to be familiar with the concepts of EBP to be able to assist learners in determining whether observed practice is built on solid evidence or solely on tradition. Educators role modeling EBP concepts (e.g., addressing a student question at the time it is asked with a search of the literature and a discussion of ﬁ ndings and outcomes) can assist learners to integrate EBP concepts into their own practice paradigms. Additional champions required for successful communication of EBP concepts are the learners themselves. There are always different levels of learners. Those who quickly absorb the concepts of EBP can become champions who assist other learners in integrating EBP principles into their practices. Integration of EBP concepts into one’s practice is essential for learners to both see and do. Without learner champions, educating other learners will be less successful. Often in venues such as journal clubs, the learners are the ones who create an environment that encourages the less-than-enthusiastic learner to join in the process. The idea that learning EBP can be analogous to making a quilt may help learners to see the EBP process as wholly integrated. Educators, clinical preceptors, and other learners using EBP concepts are the “patches” in the quilt. When learners see EBP concepts integrated by these patches, the process takes on perspective and purpose, much as patches put together make a pattern that can be seen only in the completed quilt. Mentors The ﬁ nal champion for successfully teaching EBP is the EBP mentor, sometimes called a coach, information broker, or conﬁ dant (Melnyk, 2007). This individual’s job is to provide one-on-one mentoring of educators, providing them with on-site assistance in problem solving about a how to teach EBP. Mentoring has been a long-standing tradition in academia; however, these efforts must be focused, purposeful, and supported by administration for them to be successful (Peck, Lester, Hinshaw, et al., 2009). Faculty who believe in EBP and desire to teach students to be evidence-based clinicians may ﬁ nd that competing priorities within an academic environment must be overcome in order for them to provide the amount of guidance they would like to their fellow educators. An EBP mentor’s primary focus in the academic setting is on improving the student and faculty’s understanding and integration of EBP in practice and educational paradigms. This is often accomplished through providing the right information at the right time that can assist the student to provide the best possible care to the patient and the faculty to provide the best evidence-based education to the student. These mentorships need to be formal, paid positions with time dedicated for teaching EBP. Chapter 15 has more on the concept of mentoring in EBP. Technical Resources Technical resources are an imperative for educators as they develop curricula using multiple instructional technologies to provide varied learning opportunities for students to improve their information literacy skills to effectively and efﬁ ciently access resources to answer their clinical questions (Pravikoff, Pierce, & Tanner, 2005; Schutt & Hightower, 2009). According to the AACN, technology affords an increased collaboration among faculties in teaching, practice, and research. In addition, technology in education may enhance the professional ability to educate clinicians for practice, prepare future healthcare educators, and advance professional science (AACN, 2002). Information te
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