Fifteen years ago, Esbensen and Winfree published an article in which they challenged the stereotypical image of gang members, specifically with regard to race/ethnicity and sex. In the ensuing years, a number of other publications have reported findings similar to those reported by Esbensen and Winfree, especially with regard to the sex composition of American youth gangs. Studies from Europe have also reported gang member demographic characteristics similar to those reported in the United States. The current article replicates Esbensen and Winfree?s research by examining the sex and racial/ethnic characteristics of self-reported gang members in a seven (7) city study. In addition, the article explores these characteristics across five (5) years of data, examining the extent to which gang member demographics remain constant as youth age. Furthermore, given the attention to immigration, the article also assesses the extent to which gang membership is linked to immigration status. More IMPORTANT, the article also explores the extent to which offending rates vary by these demographic characteristics of the gang and non-gang youth.The following article will be helpful in structuring your presentation and it is titled, ?Who Are Gangsters? An Examination of the Age, Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Immigration Status of Self-Reported Gang Members in a Seven-City Study of American Youth?, and can be found at http://ccj.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/28/4/465?ijkey=09fuCMBIn7zOM&keytype=ref&siteid=spccj:Using the supplied article and readings from your textbook, create a ten to fifteen (10-15) slide presentation in which you research a gang in your city or state:Create ten to fifteen (10-15) slides that explain the definition of a gang and compares and contrasts three (3) public?s perceptions of gangs. Describe three (3) reasons why the public?s perception of gangs defines fraternities as gangs. Compare and contrast three (3) significant features found in female and male gangs. Note: This could be crimes, activity, demographics, etc. Compare and contrast three (3) behaviors of both fraternities and gangs. Next provide two (2) recruiting and initiation rituals for both fraternities and gangs then in your own words describe the significance of using these rituals within both fraternities and gangs. Justify your response. Use at least three (3) academic references
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